Twenty adult patients suffering from Down's syndrome (DS) were recruited from hospitals and the community, together with 14 age- and sex-matched controls of normal intelligence. Dementia was diagnosed in patients using a structured psychiatric and physical examination as well as a carer interview and case notes. All patients and controls were imaged using single photon emission computerized tomography with 99mTc-exametazime. Four patients were clinically demented and all of them showed regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes commonly found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, namely bilateral temporo-parietal deficits. These changes were also observed in about half of the patients without clinical evidence of dementia, but in none of the healthy controls. Across the group of patients, temporo-parietal rCBF deficits were associated with evidence of deterioration, but not with advancing age.