One of the potential clinical uses of the new cerebral blood flow agent 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HM-PAO) is the investigation of dementia, in particular to differentiate between dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and multiinfarct dementia (MID). In this study 27 patients, 17 with DAT and 10 with MID, and three normal volunteers were imaged both with single photon emission CT and magnetic resonance. The HM-PAO perfusion deficits were much more common in the DAT group than in the MID group, especially in the temporoparietooccipital (TPO) regions. The two groups of patients were found to be significantly different (p less than 0.02), as regards the frequency of occurrence of bilateral TPO perfusion deficits. Four of the 17 DAT patients did not have bilateral TPO deficits but these included the three least impaired patients as assessed by psychometric testing.