Clozapine treatment and risk of COVID-19
Govind R., de Freitas DF., Pritchard M., Hayes RD., MacCabe JH.
ABSTRACTBackgroundClozapine, an antipsychotic with unique efficacy in treatment resistant psychosis, is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including pneumonia.AimsTo investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of COVID-19 in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who are receiving antipsychotic medications, using electronic health records data, in a geographically defined population in London.MethodUsing information from South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM) clinical records, via the Clinical Record Interactive Search system, we identified 6,309 individuals who had an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and were taking antipsychotics at the time on the COVID-19 pandemic onset in the UK. People who were on clozapine treatment were compared with those on any other antipsychotic treatment for risk of contracting COVID-19 between 1 March and 18 May 2020. We tested associations between clozapine treatment and COVID-19 infection, adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking status, and SLAM service use.ResultsOf 6,309 patients, 102 tested positive for COVID-19. Individuals who were on clozapine had increased risk of COVID-19 compared with those who were on other antipsychotic medication (unadjusted HR = 2.62 (95% CI 1.73 - 3.96), which was attenuated after adjusting for potential confounders, including clinical contact (adjusted hazard ratio HR=1.76, 95% CI 1.14 - 2.72).ConclusionsThese findings provide support for the hypothesis that clozapine treatment is associated with an increased risk of COVID-19. Further research will be needed in other samples to confirm this association. Potential clinical implications are discussed.