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Parkia speciosa is a food plant that grows indigenously in Southeast Asia. A great deal of interest has been paid to this plant due to its traditional uses in the treatment of several diseases. The pods contain many beneficial secondary metabolites with potential applications in medicine and cosmetics. However, studies on their phytochemical properties are still lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to profile the bioactive compounds of P. speciosa pods collected from six different regions of Malaysia through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. This study applied metabolomics to elucidate the differences between P. speciosa populations found naturally in the different locations and to characterize potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from P. speciosa pods. P. speciosa collected from different regions of Malaysia showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.45-0.76 μg/mL. The samples from the northern and northeastern parts of Peninsular Malaysia showed the highest activity. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis, 25 metabolites were identified in the pods of P. speciosa. The findings unveiled that the pods of P. speciosa collected from different locations exhibit different levels of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The pods are a natural source of potent antidiabetic bioactive compounds.

Original publication




Journal article


Life (Basel)

Publication Date





antidiabetic, flavonoids, phenolics, type 2 diabetes mellitus, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity