Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVE: This article analyses behaviour changes in dementia at the point of entry to a longitudinal study. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study of behaviour in dementia, with autopsy follow-up. SETTING: Subjects with dementia, living at home with a carer. All lived in Oxfordshire, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-seven people with dementia (Alzheimer's disease and/or vascular dementia) who were living at home with a carer. MEASURES: At 4-monthly intervals, the carers were interviewed and the subjects with dementia were assessed cognitively. Subjects' behaviour was assessed using the Present Behavioural Examination. This is an investigator-based, semi-structured interview consisting of eight main sections covering many different aspects of behaviour. The 121 main questions, with 66 further 'nested' questions, have been shown to have high reliability. RESULTS: This article analyses the types of behaviour change reported by carers at the point of entry to this long-term study. Few correlations were found between behaviour and age, gender and time since onset of dementia. Some types of behaviour were significantly more prevalent in those with greater cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Many of these changes create problems for carers, for example increased aggressive behaviour, wandering, wakefulness at night, incontinence and persecutory ideas. In general, they are more prevalent in people with more severe dementia.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Geriatr Psychiatry

Publication Date





1062 - 1073


Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aggression, Alzheimer Disease, Behavioral Symptoms, Cognition Disorders, Dementia, Vascular, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Personality Disorders, Prospective Studies, Urinary Incontinence