Autism-related dietary preferences mediate autism-gut microbiome associations.
Yap CX., Henders AK., Alvares GA., Wood DLA., Krause L., Tyson GW., Restuadi R., Wallace L., McLaren T., Hansell NK., Cleary D., Grove R., Hafekost C., Harun A., Holdsworth H., Jellett R., Khan F., Lawson LP., Leslie J., Frenk ML., Masi A., Mathew NE., Muniandy M., Nothard M., Miller JL., Nunn L., Holtmann G., Strike LT., de Zubicaray GI., Thompson PM., McMahon KL., Wright MJ., Visscher PM., Dawson PA., Dissanayake C., Eapen V., Heussler HS., McRae AF., Whitehouse AJO., Wray NR., Gratten J.
There is increasing interest in the potential contribution of the gut microbiome to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous studies have been underpowered and have not been designed to address potential confounding factors in a comprehensive way. We performed a large autism stool metagenomics study (n = 247) based on participants from the Australian Autism Biobank and the Queensland Twin Adolescent Brain project. We found negligible direct associations between ASD diagnosis and the gut microbiome. Instead, our data support a model whereby ASD-related restricted interests are associated with less-diverse diet, and in turn reduced microbial taxonomic diversity and looser stool consistency. In contrast to ASD diagnosis, our dataset was well powered to detect microbiome associations with traits such as age, dietary intake, and stool consistency. Overall, microbiome differences in ASD may reflect dietary preferences that relate to diagnostic features, and we caution against claims that the microbiome has a driving role in ASD.