Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Brewin CR., Holmes EA.
We summarize recent research on the psychological processes implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as an aid to evaluating theoretical models of the disorder. After describing a number of early approaches, including social-cognitive, conditioning, information-processing, and anxious apprehension models of PTSD, the article provides a comparative analysis and evaluation of three recent theories: Foa and Rothbaum's [Foa, E. B. & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. New York: Guilford Press] emotional processing theory; Brewin, Dalgleish, and Joseph's [Psychological Review 103 (1996) 670] dual representation theory; Ehlers and Clark's [Behaviour Research and Therapy 38 (2000) 319] cognitive theory. We review empirical evidence relevant to each model and identify promising areas for further research.