Development and evaluation of an efficient and real-time monitoring system for the vector mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.
Lai Z., Wu J., Xiao X., Xie L., Liu T., Zhou J., Xu Y., Cai Y., Lin F., Li B., Gan L., James AA., Chen X-G.
BACKGROUND: The surveillance of vector mosquitoes is essential for prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, we developed an internet-based vector mosquito monitor, MS-300, and evaluated its efficiency for the capture of the important vector mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, in laboratory and field trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The linear sizes of adult Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were measured and an infrared window was designed based on these data. A device to specifically attract these two species and automatically transmit the number of captured mosquitoes to the internet was developed. The efficiency of the device in capturing the two species was tested in laboratory, semi-field and open field trials. The efficiency results for MS-300 for catching and identifying Ae. albopictus in laboratory mosquito-net cages were 98.5% and 99.3%, and 95.8% and 98.6%, respectively, for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In a wire-gauze screened house in semi-field trials, the efficiencies of MS-300 baited with a lure in catching Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 54.2% and 51.3%, respectively, which were significantly higher than 4% and 4.2% without the lure. The real-time monitoring data revealed two daily activity peaks for Ae. albopictus (8:00-10:00 and 17:00-19:00), and one peak for Cx. quinquefasciatus (20:00-24:00). During a 98-day surveillance trial in the field, totals of 1,118 Ae. albopictus and 2,302 Cx. quinquefasciatus were captured by MS-300. There is a close correlation between the number of captured mosquitoes and the temperature in the field, and a positive correlation in the species composition of the captured samples among the mosquitoes using MS-300, BioGents Sentinel traps and human landing catches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data support the conclusion that MS-300 can specifically and efficiently capture Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and monitor their density automatically in real-time. Therefore, MS-300 has potential for use as a surveillance tool for prevention and control of vector mosquitoes.