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Insecticide resistance in Aedes mosquitoes presents a major challenge to the control of arboviral diseases. However, resistance mechanisms for many of the insecticides remain unknown. A commonly used insecticide, deltamethrin, was used to select a resistance strain of the vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and we identified an F1534S substitution in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene product as the first event in generating resistance. Engineering an F1534S substitution using Cas9/gRNA technologies conferred deltamethrin resistance on a previously susceptible strain. Crosses that removed this mutation restored the susceptible phenotype. Predicted protein structural changes and differences in transcript accumulation levels were correlated with the resistance phenotype. Furthermore, F1534S mutations were detected in all resistant Ae. albopictus populations collected in the field. We conclude that the VGSC F1534S mutation is essential for resistance to deltamethrin in Ae. albopictus, and is a suitable molecular index for pyrethroid resistance detection and monitoring in this species.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Pest Science

Publication Date





1173 - 1186