Integrated proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the Aedes aegypti eggshell.
Marinotti O., Ngo T., Kojin BB., Chou S-P., Nguyen B., Juhn J., Carballar-Lejarazú R., Marinotti PN., Jiang X., Walter MF., Tu Z., Gershon PD., James AA.
BACKGROUND: Mosquito eggshells show remarkable diversity in physical properties and structure consistent with adaptations to the wide variety of environments exploited by these insects. We applied proteomic, transcriptomic, and hybridization in situ techniques to identify gene products and pathways that participate in the assembly of the Aedes aegypti eggshell. Aedes aegypti population density is low during cold and dry seasons and increases immediately after rainfall. The survival of embryos through unfavorable periods is a key factor in the persistence of their populations. The work described here supports integrated vector control approaches that target eggshell formation and result in Ae. aegypti drought-intolerant phenotypes for public health initiatives directed to reduce mosquito-borne diseases. RESULTS: A total of 130 proteins were identified from the combined mass spectrometric analyses of eggshell preparations. CONCLUSIONS: Classification of proteins according to their known and putative functions revealed the complexity of the eggshell structure. Three novel Ae. aegypti vitelline membrane proteins were discovered. Odorant-binding and cysteine-rich proteins that may be structural components of the eggshell were identified. Enzymes with peroxidase, laccase and phenoloxidase activities also were identified, and their likely involvements in cross-linking reactions that stabilize the eggshell structure are discussed.