The transcriptome of adult female Anopheles darlingi salivary glands.
Calvo E., Andersen J., Francischetti IM., deL Capurro M., deBianchi AG., James AA., Ribeiro JMC., Marinotti O.
Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi is an important malaria vector in South and Central America; however, little is known about molecular aspects of its biology. Genomic and proteomic analyses were performed on the salivary gland products of Anopheles darlingi. A total of 593 randomly selected, salivary gland-derived cDNAs were sequenced and assembled based on their similarities into 288 clusters. The putative translated proteins were classified into three categories: (S) secretory products, (H) housekeeping products and (U) products with unknown cell location and function. Ninety-three clusters encode putative secreted proteins and several of them, such as an anophelin, a thrombin inhibitor, apyrases and several new members of the D7 protein family, were identified as molecules involved in haematophagy. Sugar-feeding related enzymes (alpha-glucosidases and alpha-amylase) also were found among the secreted salivary products. Ninety-nine clusters encode housekeeping proteins associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis, signal transduction and other cellular functions. Ninety-seven clusters encode proteins with no similarity with known proteins. Comparison of the sequence divergence of the S and H categories of proteins of An. darlingi and An. gambiae revealed that the salivary proteins are less conserved than the housekeeping proteins, and therefore are changing at a faster evolutionary rate. Tabular and supplementary material containing the cDNA sequences and annotations are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/Mosquito/A_darlingi_sialome/