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OBJECTIVES: Randomized trials of adjunctive psychotherapy for bipolar disorder are reviewed, in tandem with discussion of cost-effectiveness, mediating mechanisms, and moderators of effects. METHODS: Systematic searches of the MEDLINE and PSYCHLIT databases yielded 19 randomized controlled trials of individual family and group therapies. Outcome variables included time to recovery, relapse or recurrence, symptom severity, medication adherence, and psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: Meta-analyses consistently show that disorder-specific psychotherapies [cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal, family, and group] augment mood stabilizers in reducing rates of relapse (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39-0.82) over 1-2 years. Specific mediating mechanisms include, but are not limited to, increasing medication adherence, teaching self-monitoring and early intervention with emergent episodes, and enhancing interpersonal functioning and family communication. All therapies have strengths and weaknesses. One group psychoeducation trial, demonstrated effect sizes for recurrence that are at least equivalent to individual therapies, but findings await replication. Family interventions have been successfully administered in both single and multi-family formats, but no studies report the comparative cost-effectiveness of these formats. The best-studied psychotherapy modality, CBT, can have beneficial effects on depression, but findings are inconsistent across studies and vary with sample characteristics and comparison treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive psychotherapies can be cost-effective when weighed against observed reductions in recurrence, hospitalization and functional impairments. Future trials need to (i) clarify which populations are most likely to benefit from which strategies; (ii) identify putative mechanisms of action; (iii) systematically evaluate costs, benefits, and generalizability; and (iv) record adverse effects. The application of psychosocial interventions to young-onset populations deserves further study.

Original publication




Journal article


Bipolar Disord

Publication Date



11 Suppl 2


110 - 122


Bipolar Disorder, Cognitive Therapy, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Humans, Medication Adherence, Social Support, Treatment Outcome