The association between traumatic experience, paranoia and hallucinations: a test of the predictions of psychological models.
Gracie A., Freeman D., Green S., Garety PA., Kuipers E., Hardy A., Ray K., Dunn G., Bebbington P., Fowler D.
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the relationship between trauma and predisposition to hallucinations and to paranoia in a non-clinical sample. METHOD: A total of 228 students completed online measures of trauma, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schematic beliefs, perceptual anomalies, and predisposition to hallucinations and paranoia. RESULTS: Associations were found between negative schematic beliefs, PTSD and predisposition to both paranoia and hallucinations. PTSD reexperiencing-symptoms were most strongly associated with a predisposition to hallucinations. Negative beliefs about self and others were most strongly associated with a predisposition to paranoia. CONCLUSION: The results provide support for the prediction that there may be two routes between trauma and predisposition to psychosis. Clear support was found for a link between trauma and psychosis mediated by negative beliefs about self and others. There may also be a direct association between re-experiencing symptoms and hallucinations.