The prediction of hallucinatory predisposition in non-clinical individuals: Examining the contribution of emotion and reasoning
Allen P., Freeman D., McGuire P., Garety P., Kuipers E., Fowler D., Bebbington P., Green C., Dunn G., Ray K.
Background. Emotion, especially anxiety, has been implicated in triggering hallucinations. Reasoning processes are also likely to influence the judgments that lead to hallucinatory experiences. We report an investigation of the prediction of hallucinatory predisposition by emotion and associated processes (anxiety, depression, stress, self-focused attention) and reasoning (need for closure, extreme responding). Method. Data were analysed from a questionnaire survey in a student population (N = 327). Results. Higher levels of anxiety, self-focus, and extreme responding were associated with hallucinatory predisposition. Interactions between these three variables did not strengthen the predictive effect of each. Depression, stress, and need for closure were not found to be predictors of hallucinatory experience in the regression analysis. Conclusion. Emotional and reasoning processes may both need to be considered in the understanding of hallucinatory experience. © 2005 The British Psychological Society.