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Over the last few years, advances in neuroimaging have generated biomarkers, which increase diagnostic certainty, provide valuable information about prognosis, and suggest a particular pathology underlying the clinical dementia syndrome. We aim to review the evidence for use of already established imaging modalities, along with selected techniques that have a great potential to guide clinical decisions in the future. We discuss structural, functional and molecular imaging, focusing on the most common dementias: Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia. Finally, we stress the importance of conducting research using representative cohorts and in a naturalistic set up, in order to build a strong evidence base for translating imaging methods for a National Health Service. If we assess a broad range of patients referred to memory clinic with a variety of imaging modalities, we will make a step towards accumulating robust evidence and ultimately closing the gap between the dramatic advances in neurosciences and meaningful clinical applications for the maximum benefit of our patients.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





202 - 208


Alzheimer's disease, Dementia, Fronto-temporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, PET, Vascular dementia, Alzheimer Disease, Brain, Dementia, Dementia, Vascular, Frontotemporal Dementia, Functional Neuroimaging, Humans, Lewy Body Disease, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Neuroimaging, Positron-Emission Tomography, Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon