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OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that rumination contributes to poor social functioning by examining whether ruminative brooding predicts subsequent relationship satisfaction in individuals with a history of major depression. METHOD: Participants (N=57) were interviewed to assess depressive symptoms and completed self-report measures of brooding and relationship satisfaction, at intake into the study (Time 1) and 3 months later (Time 2). RESULTS: Brooding was related concurrently to relationship satisfaction at Time 2 (p<.01; approaching significance at Time 1, p=.06). Baseline brooding predicted diminished relationship satisfaction 3 months later, controlling for baseline relationship satisfaction (p<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Brooding may be an early warning sign for increasing relationship difficulties in those vulnerable to depression.

Original publication




Journal article


Br J Clin Psychol

Publication Date





275 - 280


Depression, Depressive Disorder, Major, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Male, Memory, Middle Aged, Personal Satisfaction, Prospective Studies, Psychology, Recurrence, Semantics