The Impact of Methylphenidate on Circadian Rhythms and Clock Gene Expression
Coogan AN., Thome J., Baird AL.
© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Circadian rhythms are intrinsically generated daily patterns manifested in a wide range of physiological and behavioral parameters, which have been linked with health and well-being. Previous evidence has suggested that circadian rhythms become altered in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common neurodevelopmental condition that affects both children and adults. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is a first-line treatment for ADHD, acting through mechanisms modulating brain catecholamines. Here we discuss the impact of methylphenidate on sleep and circadian timekeeping processes, including the expression of clock genes that encode the molecular workings of the circadian system. We discuss whether such impacts may be important in the therapeutic profile of methylphenidate, and whether chronobiological principles may be deployed to increase the therapeutic efficacy of methylphenidate. Further we discuss whether circadian processes may be of importance in the misuse of methylphenidate.