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OBJECTIVE: Cost per quality-adjusted life year data are required for reimbursement decisions in many Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. EQ-5D is by far the most commonly used instrument to generate utility values in CEE. This study aims to systematically review the literature on EQ-5D from eight CEE countries. METHODS: An electronic database search was performed up to 1 July 2015 to identify original EQ-5D studies from the countries of interest. We analysed the use of EQ-5D with respect to clinical areas, methodological rigor, population norms and value sets. RESULTS: We identified 143 studies providing 152 country-specific results with a total sample size of 81,619: Austria (n = 11), Bulgaria (n = 6), Czech Republic (n = 18), Hungary (n = 47), Poland (n = 51), Romania (n = 2), Slovakia (n = 3) and Slovenia (n = 14). Cardiovascular (21 %), neurologic (17 %), musculoskeletal (15 %) and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (13 %) were the most frequently studied clinical areas. Overall, 112 (78 %) of the studies reported EQ VAS results and 86 (60 %) EQ-5D index scores, of which 27 (31 %) did not specify the applied tariff. Hungary, Poland and Slovenia have population norms. Poland and Slovenia also have a national value set. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing use of EQ-5D is observed throughout CEE. The spread of health technology assessment activities in countries seems to be reflected in the number of EQ-5D studies. However, improvement in informed use and methodological quality of reporting is needed. In jurisdictions where no national value set is available, in order to ensure comparability we recommend to apply the most frequently used UK tariff. Regional collaboration between CEE countries should be strengthened.

Original publication




Journal article


Qual Life Res

Publication Date





2693 - 2710


Central and Eastern Europe, Cost-effectiveness analysis, EQ-5D, Health technology assessment, Health-related quality of life, Value sets, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Europe, History, 21st Century, Humans, Male, Quality of Life, Quality-Adjusted Life Years, Surveys and Questionnaires