Inhibition of NF-κB-dependent cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthesis by the macrocyclic ellagitannin oenothein B in TLR-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Schmid D., Gruber M., Piskaty C., Woehs F., Renner A., Nagy Z., Kaltenboeck A., Wasserscheid T., Bazylko A., Kiss AK., Moeslinger T.
Immunomodulatory effects of oenothein B (1), a macrocyclic ellagitannin from various Onagraceae species, have been described previously. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of 1 have not been fully clarified. The effects of 1 were investigated on inducible nitric oxide synthase, TLR-dependent and TLR-independent signal transduction cascades, and cytokine expression using murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Compound 1 (10-60 μg/mL) reduced NO production, iNOS mRNA, and iNOS protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, without inhibition of iNOS enzymatic activity. It reduced the binding of the NF-κB p50 subunit to the biotinylated-consensus sequence and decreased nuclear p65 translocation. Gallic acid as a subunit of the macrocyclic ellagitannin 1 showed a far lower inhibitory activity. Nitric oxide production was reduced by 1 after stimulation using TLR2 (Pam2CSK4) and TLR4 (Kdo2) agonists, but this compound did not inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthesis after stimulation using interferon-gamma. IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha mRNA synthesis was clearly reduced by the addition of 1. Oenothein B (1) inhibits iNOS after stimulation with LPS, TLR2, and TLR4 agonists via inhibition of TLR/NF-κB-dependent inducible nitric oxide and cytokine synthesis independent from IFN-gamma/JAK/STAT pathways. The full molecular structure of this macrocyclic ellagitannin seems to be required for its immunomodulatory actions.