Development of [18F]FAMTO: A novel fluorine-18 labelled positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 enzymes in adrenal glands.
Bongarzone S., Basagni F., Sementa T., Singh N., Gakpetor C., Faugeras V., Bordoloi J., Gee AD.
INTRODUCTION: Primary aldosteronism accounts for 6-15% of hypertension cases, the single biggest contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Whilst ~50% of these patients have unilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas, only a minority of these have curative surgery as the current diagnosis of unilateral disease is poor. Carbon-11 radiolabelled metomidate ([11C]MTO) is a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer able to selectively identify CYP11B1/2 expressing adrenocortical lesions of the adrenal gland. However, the use of [11C]MTO is limited to PET centres equipped with on-site cyclotrons due to its short half-life of 20.4 min. Radiolabelling a fluorometomidate derivative with fluorine-18 (radioactive half life 109.8 min) in the para-aromatic position ([18F]FAMTO) has the potential to overcome this disadvantage and allow it to be transported to non-cyclotron-based imaging centres. METHODS: Two strategies for the one-step radio-synthesis of [18F]FAMTO were developed. [18F]FAMTO was obtained via radiofluorination via use of sulfonium salt (1) and boronic ester (2) precursors. [18F]FAMTO was evaluated in vitro by autoradiography of pig adrenal tissues and in vivo by determining its biodistribution in rodents. Rat plasma and urine were analysed to determine [18F]FAMTO metabolites. RESULTS: [18F]FAMTO is obtained from sulfonium salt (1) and boronic ester (2) precursors in 7% and 32% non-isolated radiochemical yield (RCY), respectively. Formulated [18F]FAMTO was obtained with >99% radiochemical and enantiomeric purity with a synthesis time of 140 min from the trapping of [18F]fluoride ion on an anion-exchange resin (QMA cartridge). In vitro autoradiography of [18F]FAMTO demonstrated exquisite specific binding in CYP11B-rich pig adrenal glands. In vivo [18F]FAMTO rapidly accumulates in adrenal glands. Liver uptake was about 34% of that in the adrenals and all other organs were <12% of the adrenal uptake at 60 min post-injection. Metabolite analysis showed 13% unchanged [18F]FAMTO in blood at 10 min post-administration and rapid urinary excretion. In vitro assays in human blood showed a free fraction of 37.5%. CONCLUSIONS: [18F]FAMTO, a new 18F-labelled analogue of metomidate, was successfully synthesised. In vitro and in vivo characterization demonstrated high selectivity towards aldosterone-producing enzymes (CYP11B1 and CYP11B2), supporting the potential of this radiotracer for human investigation.