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For over 15 years we have combined clinical psychological science with the best immersive VR technologies to assess, understand, and treat mental health problems.

Key Publications

Freeman, D., Reeve, S., Robinson, A., Ehlers, A., Clark, D., Spanlang, B., & Slater, M. (2017). Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders. Psychological Medicine. [paper]

Freeman, D., Bradley, J., Antley, A., Bourke, E., DeWeever, N., Evans, N., Černis, E., Sheaves, B., Waite, F., Dunn, G., Slater, M., & Clark, D. (2016). Virtual reality in the treatment of persecutory delusions. British Journal of Psychiatry, 209, 62-67. [paper]

Atherton, S., Antley, A., Evans, N., Cernis, E., Lister, R., Dunn, G., Slater, M. & Freeman, D. (2016). Self-confidence and paranoia: an experimental study using an immersive virtual reality social situation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44, 56-64. [pdf]

Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Murray, R., Evans, N., Lister, R., Antley, A., Slater, M., Godlewska, B., Cornish, R., Williams, J., Di Simplicio, M., Igoumenou, A., Brenneisen, R., Tunbridge, E., Harrison, P., Harmer, C., Cowen, P., Morrison, P. (2015). How cannabis causes paranoia: Using the intravenous administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41, 391-399. [paper]

Freeman, D., Evans, N., Lister, R., Antley, A., Dunn, G., & Slater, M. (2014). Height, social comparison, and paranoia: an immersive virtual reality experimental study. Psychiatry Research, 30, 348-352. [paper]

Freeman, D., Antley, A., Ehlers, A., Dunn, G., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Garety, P., Kuipers, E., Glucksman, E., & Slater, M. (2014). The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods. Psychological Assessment, 36, 841-847.[paper]

Freeman, D., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Dunn, G., Carter, L-A., Garety, P., Kuipers, E., Slater, M., Antley, A., Glucksman, E., & Ehlers, A. (2013). Paranoia and post-traumatic stress disorder in the months after a physical assault: a longitudinal study examining shared and differential predictors. Psychological Medicine, 43, 2673-2684. [paper]

Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Vorontsova, N., Antley, A. & Slater, M. (2010). Testing the continuum of delusional beliefs: an experimental study using virtual reality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 83–92. [paper]

Stinson, K., Valmaggia, L., Antley, A., Slater, M. & Freeman, D. (2010). Cognitive triggers of auditory hallucinations: an experimental investigation. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 179–184. [pdf]

Freeman, D. (2008). Studying and treating schizophrenia using virtual reality (vr): a new paradigm. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 605-610. [paper]

Freeman, D., Gittins, M., Pugh, K., Antley, A., Slater, M., & Dunn, G. (2008). What makes one person paranoid and another person anxious? The differential prediction of social anxiety and persecutory ideation in an experimental situation. Psychological Medicine, 38, 1121-1132. [paper]

Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Antley, A., Slater, M., Bebbington, P., Gittins, M., Dunn, G., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., & Garety, P. A (2008). A virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 258-263. [pdf]

Fornells-Ambrojo, M., Barker, C., Swapp, D., Slater, M., Antley, A. & Freeman, D. (2008). Virtual reality and persecutory delusions: safety and feasibility. Schizophrenia Research, 104, 228-236. [pdf]

Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Green, C., Valmaggia, L., Dunn, G., & Garety, P. (2007). A measure of state persecutory ideation for experimental studies. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 781-784. [pdf]

Freeman, D., Garety, P.A., Bebbington, P., Slater, M., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Green, C., Jordan, J., & Ray, K & Dunn, G., (2005). The psychology of persecutory ideation II: A virtual reality experimental study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 309-315. [pdf]

Freeman, D., Slater, M., Bebbington, P.E., Garety, P.A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Met, A., Read, C., Jordan, J., & Vinayagamoorthy, V. (2003). Can virtual reality be used to investigate persecutory ideation? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 509-514. [pdf]