Found 17 matches for kindness
Effect of kindness-based meditation on health and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
OBJECTIVE: Kindness-based meditation (KBM) is a rubric covering meditation techniques developed to elicit kindness in a conscious way. Some techniques, for example, loving-kindness meditation and compassion meditation, have been included in programs aimed at improving health and well-being. Our aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence available from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of KBM on health and well-being against passive and active control groups in patients and the general population. METHOD: Searches were completed in March 2013. Two reviewers applied predetermined eligibility criteria (RCTs, peer-reviewed publications, theses or conference proceedings, adult participants, KBM interventions) and extracted the data. Meta-analyses used random-effects models. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included. KBM was moderately effective in decreasing self-reported depression (standard mean difference [Hedges's g] = -0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.08, -0.14]) and increasing mindfulness (Hedges's g = 0.63, 95% CI [0.22, 1.05]), compassion (Hedges's g = 0.61, 95% CI [0.24, 0.99]) and self-compassion (Hedges's g = 0.45, 95% CI [0.15, 0.75]) against passive controls. Positive emotions were increased (Hedges's g = 0.42, 95% CI [0.10, 0.75]) against progressive relaxation. Exposure to KBM may initially be challenging for some people. RESULTS were inconclusive for some outcomes, in particular against active controls. The methodological quality of the reports was low to moderate. RESULTS suffered from imprecision due to wide CIs deriving from small studies. CONCLUSIONS: KBM showed evidence of benefits for the health of individuals and communities through its effects on well-being and social interaction. Further research including well-conducted large RCTs is warranted.
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that facilitating empathy could improve individuals' well-being. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) could be a facilitator, and online delivery a cost-effective format. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based randomised controlled trial recruiting 809 adults to test whether an LKM course improves well-being through evoking pleasant emotions, psychological resources, and altruism compared to a light physical exercise course (LE). Participants in both arms followed video-based instructions, completed post-intervention questionnaires, and used online diaries and forums. To measure altruism £10/$10 were offered to participants with a choice of donating all/half to charity. Thematic analysis was applied to diary/forum entries. RESULTS: Both courses increased well-being without significant differences. LKM participants were less anxious than LE participants (ß = -0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.43, -0.02], p = .03), and more likely to donate £5/$5 (Relative Risk = 3.57, 95%CI [0.82, 15.50], p = .09). Attrition was high (82%). Participants engaged in diary/forum usage. LKM was an emotionally intense experience, generating deep reflections and increased connectedness but difficult for some to process. LE led to gentle increases in relaxation, generating a sense of achievement. CONCLUSIONS: Future research needs to confirm findings and devise ways of delivering online LKM effectively to diverse populations.
A Non-Randomised Feasibility Trial Assessing the Efficacy of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Teachers to Reduce Stress and Improve Well-Being
© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Teacher stress is a serious and endemic concern. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise in reducing stress and increasing well-being by cultivating mindfulness and self-compassion. This feasibility trial evaluated a mindfulness-based programme customised for teachers. A sample of 89 secondary school teachers and staff were recruited and self-selected into the intervention (n = 49) or comparison (n = 40) conditions. Participants were asked to complete self-reports which measured stress (PSS), well-being (WEMWBS), mindfulness (FFMQ), and self-compassion (SCS; Kindness and Self-Judgement) at baseline and after the completion of the intervention. Results revealed that individuals in the intervention condition reported significant reductions in stress, and significant increases in well-being post-intervention in comparison to their counterparts in the comparison group. There was an observed large effect (ηp2>.14) for the intervention on all outcome measures, an effect that was maintained when controlling for baseline differences between the intervention and comparison groups. Furthermore, the majority (95 %) of teachers who attended the course found it to be acceptable. These results indicate that a customised mindfulness-based programme for teachers is a promising approach to reducing stress and increasing well-being, mindfulness, and self-compassion among secondary school teachers. However, the results of the current study are preliminary and the next phase of work will involve extending to a larger scale randomised controlled trial.
Glass half full: A diary and interview qualitative investigation of flourishing among adolescents living with chronic pain.
BACKGROUND: Counter to paediatric pain literature that typically highlights the deleterious impacts associated with adolescent chronic pain, evidence suggests that some adolescents flourish in their experience of pain. This study sought to explore how adolescents experience, understand and perceive flourishing while living with chronic pain. METHODS: Twenty-four adolescents aged 11-24 years were recruited via clinical and online settings. All adolescents were asked to complete daily diary entries, with a subset of 10 participants asked to complete follow-up interviews. RESULTS: Inductive reflexive thematic analysis generated two themes: 'Appreciating the moment' and 'Becoming a better version of myself'. Themes addressed how self and other comparisons facilitated a renewed appreciation for achievements and pleasures in life due to living with chronic pain. Adolescents further demonstrated a perception of continued personal and social growth in their experience of chronic pain, including increased emotional maturity, resilience, positivity, kindness and improved communication skills. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that adolescents can experience positive changes in functioning and flourish in some domains of life despite, or resulting from, chronic pain. Further research with an exclusive focus on flourishing is needed to build on this work and address this important gap in knowledge. SIGNIFICANCE: We present evidence that adolescents can flourish when living with chronic pain. Such knowledge may inform the development of positive psychological treatment strategies that are focused on reinforcing adolescents' existing strengths, to expand on current treatment options for adolescents living with chronic pain.
Social interactions like group inclusion, receiving praise, or treating others kindly can be motivating and enjoyable. Social reward sensitivity, including motivation and enjoyment, varies between individuals. In early childhood, this variation may relate to differences in social experience and development. Social reward questionnaires have been developed to measure individual differences in social enjoyment for adolescents and adults, but no early childhood measure currently exists. Here, we describe the development and validation of the parent/caregiver report Social Reward Questionnaire-Early Childhood (SRQ-EC) for children aged 3-7 years. The SRQ-EC was developed to quantify both wanting (motivation) and liking (enjoyment) of social rewards, which were considered in separate factor models. For wanting and liking models, exploratory (N = 126) and confirmatory (N = 344) factor analyses identified that three subscales best represented early childhood social reward sensitivity, which were: Sociability (large groups), Admiration (praise and positive attention), and Prosocial Interactions and Compliance (kindness and rule following). SRQ-EC subscales were internally consistent (ω = 0.76-0.91, α = 0.75-0.88, mean interitem correlations = 0.38-0.60) with high test-retest reliability over 2-weeks (r = 0.66-0.85, all p < .001). Subscales differentially associated with other social behavior and personality measures, suggesting construct validity. SRQ-EC subscale scores further showed differential and significant associations with autistic-like traits in nonautistic children. These results suggest that SRQ-EC subscale scores are reliable for assessing social reward sensitivity during early childhood, which could offer key developmental insight regarding interindividual variation in early social behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).
Self-Compassion and Cultural Values: A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Compassion Using a Multitrait-Multimethod (MTMM) Analytical Procedure.
Self-compassion is natural, trainable and multi-faceted human capacity. To date there has been little research into the role of culture in influencing the conceptual structure of the underlying construct, the relative importance of different facets of self-compassion, nor its relationships to cultural values. This study employed a cross-cultural design, with 4,124 participants from 11 purposively sampled datasets drawn from different countries. We aimed to assess the relevance of positive and negative items when building the self-compassion construct, the convergence among the self-compassion components, and the possible influence of cultural values. Each dataset comprised undergraduate students who completed the "Self-Compassion Scale" (SCS). We used a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach to the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) model, separating the variability into self-compassion components (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness), method (positive and negative valence), and error (uniqueness). The normative scores of the Values Survey Module (VSM) in each country, according to the cultural dimensions of individualism, masculinity, power distance, long-term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, and indulgence, were considered. We used Spearman coefficients (r s) to assess the degree of association between the cultural values and the variance coming from the positive and negative items to explain self-compassion traits, as well as the variance shared among the self-compassion traits, after removing the method effects produced by the item valence. The CFA applied to the MTMM model provided acceptable fit in all the samples. Positive items made a greater contribution to capturing the traits comprising self-compassion when the long-term orientation cultural value was higher (r s = 0.62; p = 0.042). Negative items did not make significant contributions to building the construct when the individualism cultural value was higher, but moderate effects were found (r s = 0.40; p = 0.228). The level of common variance among the self-compassion trait factors was inversely related to the indulgence cultural value (r s = -0.65; p = 0.030). The extent to which the positive and negative items contribute to explain self-compassion, and that different self-compassion facets might be regarded as reflecting a broader construct, might differ across cultural backgrounds.
Mindfulness-Based Compassionate Living (MBCL): a Qualitative Study into the Added Value of Compassion in Recurrent Depression
Objectives: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been found effective in reducing depressive symptoms in adults suffering from recurrent depression. However, sustained recovery after MBCT is modest and may require additional, sequential treatment. Basing such additions on known working mechanisms of MBCT, like increases in (self-)compassion, is likely to reap further benefits. Mindfulness-based compassionate living (MBCL) is designed as a follow-up to MBCT and has been shown effective in reducing depressive symptoms. It has a similar format to MBCT: eight weekly group sessions and additional home practice. MBCL has a more explicit focus on cultivating (self-)compassion in response to difficult experiences. Little is known about the potential experiential added value of MBCL after MBCT. The current study aims to fill this gap. Methods: A grounded theory approach was used to analyze in-depth interviews, which were held post-intervention with a purposive sample of patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial of MBCL for recurrent depression. Results: Participants indicated that MBCL particularly had added value in terms of its immediate applicability in situations of deep suffering. Four themes emerged: (1) the container of kindness, (2) exposure to the difficult, (3) empowerment, and (4) common humanity. Conclusion: This study shows that participants experienced an additional value of MBCL over and above MBCT. The results provide insight into the processes underlying the efficacy of MBCL in reducing depressive symptoms and may help address underlying mechanisms of vulnerability in this population as well as tap into mechanisms that enhance resilience.