Fosphenytoin for seizure prevention in childhood coma in Africa: A randomized clinical trial
Gwer SA., Idro RI., Fegan G., Chengo EM., Mpoya A., Kivaya E., Crawley J., Muchohi SN., Kihara MN., Ogutu BR., Kirkham FJ., Newton CR.
Purpose: We conducted a double-blind trial to determine whether a single intramuscular injection of fosphenytoin prevents seizures and neurologic sequelae in children with acute coma. Methods: We conducted this study at Kilifi District Hospital in coastal Kenya and Kondele Children's Hospital in western Kenya. We recruited children (age, 9 months to 13 years) with acute nontraumatic coma. We administered fosphenytoin (20 phenytoin equivalents/kg) or placebo and examined the prevalence and frequency of clinical seizures and occurrence of neurocognitive sequelae. Results: We recruited 173 children (median age, 2.6 [interquartile range, 1.7-3.7] years) into the study; 110 had cerebral malaria, 8 had bacterial meningitis, and 55 had encephalopathies of unknown etiology. Eighty-five children received fosphenytoin and 88 received placebo. Thirty-three (38%) children who received fosphenytoin had at least 1 seizure compared with 32 (36%) who received placebo ( P = .733). Eighteen (21%) and 15 (17%) children died in the fosphenytoin and placebo arms, respectively ( P = .489). At 3 months after discharge, 6 (10%) children in the fosphenytoin arm had neurologic sequelae compared with 6 (10%) in the placebo arm ( P = .952). Conclusion: A single intramuscular injection of fosphenytoin (20 phenytoin equivalents/kg) does not prevent seizures or neurologic deficits in childhood acute nontraumatic coma. © 2013 The authors.