Relative toxicity of analgesics commonly used for intentional self-poisoning: A study of case fatality based on fatal and non-fatal overdoses.
Hawton K., Ferrey A., Casey D., Wells C., Fuller A., Bankhead C., Clements C., Ness J., Gunnell D., Kapur N., Geulayov G.
BACKGROUND: Analgesics are used most frequently in fatal and non-fatal medicinal self-poisonings. Knowledge about their relative toxicity in overdose is important for clinicians and regulatory agencies. METHODS: Using data for 2005-2012 we investigated case fatality (number of suicides relative to number of non-fatal self-poisonings) of paracetamol, aspirin, codeine, dihydrocodeine, tramadol, paracetamol with codeine (co-codamol), paracetamol with dihydrocodeine (co-dydramol), ibuprofen and co-proxamol (paracetamol plus dextropropoxyphene; withdrawn in the UK in 2008 due to high toxicity). Data on suicides obtained from the Office for National Statistics and on non-fatal self-poisonings from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England. Case fatality was estimated for each drug, using paracetamol as the reference category. RESULTS: Compared to paracetamol and based on single drug deaths the case fatality index of dihydrocodeine was considerably elevated (odds ratio (OR) 12.81, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 10.19-16.12). Case fatality indices for tramadol (OR 4.05, 95% CI 3.38-4.85) and codeine (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.81-2.70) were also significantly higher than for paracetamol. The results when multiple drug deaths were included produced similar results. The relative toxicity of co-proxamol far exceeded that of the other analgesics. LIMITATIONS: Data on fatal self-poisonings were based on national data, whereas those for non-fatal poisonings were based on local data. CONCLUSIONS: Dihydrocodeine and tramadol are particularly toxic in overdose and codeine is also relatively toxic. They should be prescribed with caution, particularly to individuals at risk of self-harm.