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INTRODUCTION: Visual hallucinations are often considered to be suggestive of a secondary cause of psychosis, however, this association has never been assessed meta-analytically. We aimed to compare the presence of visual hallucinations in patients with psychosis due to a primary or secondary cause. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies directly comparing primary and secondary psychosis. A random-effects model, following the DerSimonian and Laird method, was used to pool studies and generate overall odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and prediction intervals (PI). RESULTS: Fourteen studies (904 primary and 804 secondary psychosis patients) were included. Visual hallucinations were significantly associated with secondary psychosis (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.7-5.1, p 

Original publication




Journal article


Cogn Neuropsychiatry

Publication Date



1 - 15


Psychosis, hallucination, organic psychosis, psychopathology, secondary psychosis, visual hallucination