The role of parenting behaviors in childhood post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analytic review.
Williamson V., Creswell C., Fearon P., Hiller RM., Walker J., Halligan SL.
Studies that have examined the association between parenting behaviors and childhood post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded mixed findings. To clarify the role of parenting in childhood PTSD we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the association between parenting and youth PTSD symptoms (total n=4010). Negative parenting behaviors (e.g. overprotection, hostility) accounted for 5.3% of the variance in childhood PTSD symptoms. Positive parenting behaviors (e.g. warmth, support) account for 2.0% of variance. The negative and positive parenting and child PTSD symptom associations did not statistically differ in magnitude. Moderator analyses indicated that methodological factors and trauma variables may affect the association between parenting and child PTSD. Most studies relied upon questionnaire measures of general parenting style, and studies were predominantly cross-sectional with weaker evidence found in longitudinal studies. Given the small number of high quality studies available, only provisional recommendations about the role of parenting in childhood PTSD are made.