The Mortality After Release from Incarceration Consortium (MARIC): Protocol for a multi-national, individual participant data meta-analysis.
Borschmann R., Tibble H., Spittal MJ., Preen D., Pirkis J., Larney S., Rosen DL., Young JT., Love AD., Altice FL., Binswanger IA., Bukten A., Butler T., Chang Z., Chen C-Y., Clausen T., Christensen PB., Culbert GJ., Degenhardt L., Dirkzwager A., Dolan K., Fazel S., Fischbacher C., Giles M., Graham L., Harding D., Huang Y-F., Huber F., Karaminia A., Keen C., Kouyoumdjian FG., Lim S., Møller L., Moniruzzaman A., Morenoff J., O'Moore E., Pizzicato LN., Pratt D., Proescholdbell SK., Ranapurwala SI., Shanahan ME., Shaw J., Slaunwhite A., Somers JM., Spaulding AC., Stern MF., Viner KM., Wang N., Willoughby M., Zhao B., Kinner SA.
INTRODUCTION: More than 30 million adults are released from incarceration globally each year. Many experience complex physical and mental health problems, and are at markedly increased risk of preventable mortality. Despite this, evidence regarding the global epidemiology of mortality following release from incarceration is insufficient to inform the development of targeted, evidence-based responses. Many previous studies have suffered from inadequate power and poor precision, and even large studies have limited capacity to disaggregate data by specific causes of death, sub-populations or time since release to answer questions of clinical and public health relevance. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively document the incidence, timing, causes and risk factors for mortality in adults released from prison. METHODS: We created the Mortality After Release from Incarceration Consortium (MARIC), a multi-disciplinary collaboration representing 29 cohorts of adults who have experienced incarceration from 11 countries. Findings across cohorts will be analysed using a two-step, individual participant data meta-analysis methodology. RESULTS: The combined sample includes 1,337,993 individuals (89% male), with 75,795 deaths recorded over 9,191,393 person-years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The consortium represents an important advancement in the field, bringing international attention to this problem. It will provide internationally relevant evidence to guide policymakers and clinicians in reducing preventable deaths in this marginalized population. KEY WORDS: Mortality; incarceration; prison; release; individual participant data meta-analysis; consortium; cohort.