Improving the predictive potential of diffusion MRI in schizophrenia using normative models-Towards subject-level classification.
Elad D., Cetin-Karayumak S., Zhang F., Cho KIK., Lyall AE., Seitz-Holland J., Ben-Ari R., Pearlson GD., Tamminga CA., Sweeney JA., Clementz BA., Schretlen DJ., Viher PV., Stegmayer K., Walther S., Lee J., Crow TJ., James A., Voineskos AN., Buchanan RW., Szeszko PR., Malhotra AK., Keshavan MS., Shenton ME., Rathi Y., Bouix S., Sochen N., Kubicki MR., Pasternak O.
Diffusion MRI studies consistently report group differences in white matter between individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Nevertheless, the abnormalities found at the group-level are often not observed at the individual level. Among the different approaches aiming to study white matter abnormalities at the subject level, normative modeling analysis takes a step towards subject-level predictions by identifying affected brain locations in individual subjects based on extreme deviations from a normative range. Here, we leveraged a large harmonized diffusion MRI dataset from 512 healthy controls and 601 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, to study whether normative modeling can improve subject-level predictions from a binary classifier. To this aim, individual deviations from a normative model of standard (fractional anisotropy) and advanced (free-water) dMRI measures, were calculated by means of age and sex-adjusted z-scores relative to control data, in 18 white matter regions. Even though larger effect sizes are found when testing for group differences in z-scores than are found with raw values (p