A meta-analysis of deep brain structural shape and asymmetry abnormalities in 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia compared with 3,929 healthy volunteers via the ENIGMA Consortium.
Gutman BA., van Erp TGM., Alpert K., Ching CRK., Isaev D., Ragothaman A., Jahanshad N., Saremi A., Zavaliangos-Petropulu A., Glahn DC., Shen L., Cong S., Alnaes D., Andreassen OA., Doan NT., Westlye LT., Kochunov P., Satterthwaite TD., Wolf DH., Huang AJ., Kessler C., Weideman A., Nguyen D., Mueller BA., Faziola L., Potkin SG., Preda A., Mathalon DH., Bustillo J., Calhoun V., Ford JM., Walton E., Ehrlich S., Ducci G., Banaj N., Piras F., Piras F., Spalletta G., Canales-Rodríguez EJ., Fuentes-Claramonte P., Pomarol-Clotet E., Radua J., Salvador R., Sarró S., Dickie EW., Voineskos A., Tordesillas-Gutiérrez D., Crespo-Facorro B., Setién-Suero E., van Son JM., Borgwardt S., Schönborn-Harrisberger F., Morris D., Donohoe G., Holleran L., Cannon D., McDonald C., Corvin A., Gill M., Filho GB., Rosa PGP., Serpa MH., Zanetti MV., Lebedeva I., Kaleda V., Tomyshev A., Crow T., James A., Cervenka S., Sellgren CM., Fatouros-Bergman H., Agartz I., Howells F., Stein DJ., Temmingh H., Uhlmann A., de Zubicaray GI., McMahon KL., Wright M., Cobia D., Csernansky JG., Thompson PM., Turner JA., Wang L.
Schizophrenia is associated with widespread alterations in subcortical brain structure. While analytic methods have enabled more detailed morphometric characterization, findings are often equivocal. In this meta-analysis, we employed the harmonized ENIGMA shape analysis protocols to collaboratively investigate subcortical brain structure shape differences between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy control participants. The study analyzed data from 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia and 3,929 healthy control participants contributed by 21 worldwide research groups participating in the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Harmonized shape analysis protocols were applied to each site's data independently for bilateral hippocampus, amygdala, caudate, accumbens, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus obtained from T1-weighted structural MRI scans. Mass univariate meta-analyses revealed more-concave-than-convex shape differences in the hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, and thalamus in individuals with schizophrenia compared with control participants, more-convex-than-concave shape differences in the putamen and pallidum, and both concave and convex shape differences in the caudate. Patterns of exaggerated asymmetry were observed across the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus in individuals with schizophrenia compared to control participants, while diminished asymmetry encompassed ventral striatum and ventral and dorsal thalamus. Our analyses also revealed that higher chlorpromazine dose equivalents and increased positive symptom levels were associated with patterns of contiguous convex shape differences across multiple subcortical structures. Findings from our shape meta-analysis suggest that common neurobiological mechanisms may contribute to gray matter reduction across multiple subcortical regions, thus enhancing our understanding of the nature of network disorganization in schizophrenia.