Correlates of depression in bipolar disorder.
Moore PJ., Little MA., McSharry PE., Goodwin GM., Geddes JR.
We analyse time series from 100 patients with bipolar disorder for correlates of depression symptoms. As the sampling interval is non-uniform, we quantify the extent of missing and irregular data using new measures of compliance and continuity. We find that uniformity of response is negatively correlated with the standard deviation of sleep ratings (ρ = -0.26, p = 0.01). To investigate the correlation structure of the time series themselves, we apply the Edelson-Krolik method for correlation estimation. We examine the correlation between depression symptoms for a subset of patients and find that self-reported measures of sleep and appetite/weight show a lower average correlation than other symptoms. Using surrogate time series as a reference dataset, we find no evidence that depression is correlated between patients, though we note a possible loss of information from sparse sampling.