The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol).
Waldron CA., Gallacher J., van der Weijden T., Newcombe R., Elwyn G.
BACKGROUND: The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to change behaviour to reduce risk, understanding of risk information and emotional affect. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial comprising four arms, with a between subjects design will be performed. There will be two intervention groups and two control groups. The first control comprises a pre-intervention questionnaire and presents risk in a bar graph format. The second control presents risk in a bar graph format without pre-intervention questionnaire. These two control groups are to account for the potential Hawthorne effect of thinking about cardiovascular risk before viewing actual risk. The two intervention groups comprise presenting risk in either a pictogram or metonym format (image depicting seriousness of having a myocardial infarction). 800 individuals' aged between 45 and 64 years, who have not been previously diagnosed with heart disease and have access to a computer with internet, will be given a link to a website comprising a risk calculator and electronic questionnaires. 10-year risk of having a coronary heart disease event will be assessed and presented in one of the three formats. A post-intervention questionnaire will be completed after viewing the risk format. Main outcome measures are (i) intention to change behaviour, (ii) understanding of risk information, (iii) emotional affect and (iv) worry about future heart disease. Secondary outcomes are the sub-components of the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. DISCUSSION: Having reviewed the literature, we are not aware of any other studies which have used the assessment of actual risk, in a trial to compare different graphical cardiovascular risk presentation formats. This trial will provide data about which graphical cardiovascular risk presentation format is most effective in encouraging behaviour change to reduce cardiovascular risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN91319318.