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BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have very high rates of osteoporosis and fractures, to which their widespread vitamin D deficiency and other factors could contribute. We aimed to assess in people with IDs previously treated for vitamin D deficiency (1) long-term adherence to vitamin D supplementation and (2) bone mineral density (BMD), as an indicator for risk of fractures, according to vitamin D supplementation and other factors. METHOD: We recorded height, weight, medical, pharmacological, dietary and lifestyle assessment. Blood sample were taken for vitamin D and related analytes. dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for BMD was performed. RESULTS: Of 51 study participants (mean [standard deviation, SD] age 51.5 [13.6] years, 57% male), 41 (80.4%) were taking vitamin D and 10 were not. Mean [SD] serum vitamin D was 81.3 [21.3] vs. 25.2 [10.2] nmol/L (P < 0.0001), respectively. Thirty-six participants underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, which showed osteoporosis in 23.7% and osteopenia in 52.6%. Participants on vitamin D had higher BMD than those who were not, a statistically significant difference when confounders (lack of mobility and hypogonadism) were removed. BMD was significantly different according to mobility, particularly in wheelchair users, in whom hip BMD was 33% lower (P < 0.0001) than in participants with normal mobility. Participants still taking vitamin D showed a 6.1% increase in BMD at the spine (P = 0.003) after mean [SD] 7.4 [1.5] years vitamin D treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In people with IDs and previous vitamin D deficiency, BMD increases on long-term vitamin D supplementation. However, additional strategies must be considered for osteoporosis and fracture prevention in this population.

Original publication

DOI

10.1111/jir.12581

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Intellect Disabil Res

Publication Date

19/12/2018

Keywords

bone mineral density, fracture, hypogonadism, impaired mobility, intellectual disabilities, osteoporosis, vitamin D