A Review of the Potential Application of Osteocyte-Related Biomarkers, Fibroblast Growth Factor-23, Sclerostin, and Dickkopf-1 in Predicting Osteoporosis and Fractures.
Ramli FF., Chin K-Y.
Bone turnover markers (BTMs) derived from the secretory activities of osteoblasts and the matrix-degrading activities of osteoclasts are useful in monitoring the progression of osteoporosis and the efficacy of anti-osteoporotic treatment. However, the usefulness of BTMs in predicting osteoporosis remains elusive. Osteocytes play a central role in regulating bone formation and resorption. The proteins secreted by osteocytes, such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), sclerostin (SOST), and dickkopf-1 (DKK1), could be candidates for osteoporosis screening and fracture prediction. This review summarizes the current evidence on the potential of osteocyte-related proteins as biomarkers for osteoporosis and fracture prediction. The literature reports that SOST may be a potential marker for osteoporosis screening but not for fracture prediction. FGF23 is a potential marker for increased fracture risk, but more studies are needed to confirm its usefulness. The role of DKK1 as a marker to predict osteoporosis and fracture risk cannot be confirmed due to a lack of consistent evidence. In conclusion, circulating osteocyte markers are potential osteoporosis biomarkers, but more studies are warranted to validate their clinical use.