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Communication of benefits and harms of treatments: an online randomised controlled trial.

CICERO: an online randomised controlled trial.

How benefits and harms information of medical interventions is communicated affects how well patients understand it and can impact their decision-making and confidence.


What is the CICERO trial

The CICERO study is a randomised controlled trial that compares three different ways of communicating available information on medical interventions: "Summary of Findings table", "Kilim plot/table" and "Vitruvian plot".

Participants in the study will be randomised to one of these three communication tools and then answer some questions. The study is all online, completed in a single session lasting about 20 minutes.

20 minutes, online study.

The study is currently closed - many thanks to all the participants and the supporting patient-led initiatives and organisations.

The results will hopefully improve how benefit-harm information is communicated to patients, supporting their informed participation in clinical shared decision-making.

If you have any questions, please contact Edoardo G. Ostinelli ( or Andrea Cipriani (



We are proudly collaborating with organisations, associations and patient-led initiatives that are supporting recruitment for the CICERO trial.

Thanks for supporting the recruitment of the CICERO trial.