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Here you will find a list of resource links and and a glossary related to our research.

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Selected publications

Find out more about Autoimmune Psychosis from published papers. Click here to access papers.

SINAPPS group 2020 webinar series 'Inflammation and psychosis: and update'



SINAPPS group 2020 and 2021 webinar series 'Inflammation and psychosis: and update'

(also available on our Youtube channel)

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 Click here to access all issues of the SINAPPS Group Newsletter.

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Many mental-health conditions have bodily triggers - The Economist, 2024

Call for psychosis treatment overhaul after evidence of autoimmune trigger - The Guardian, 2023

Can Psychosis be an Autoimmune disease

Prof Belinda Lennox - BBC Radio 4 

Autoimmunity and depression - The Guardian

Autoimmunity and psychosis - The Boston Globe

Autoimmunity and schizophrenia - New Scientist 

A doctor with NMDAR antibodies -

Some psychosis cases an 'immune disorder' - BBC News


Logo of with letter AMP Antibody mediated psychosis

Antibody Mediated Psychosis - Information and

resources for the public

AMP Booklet Label

A detailed but easy to understand booklet on

Antibody Mediated Psychosis

Front image of an orange coloured booklet on Inflammation and Mental Health

An introduction to how inflammation can affect

our mental health - Inflammation and mental health logo

 McPin Foundation

Mind for better health Logo

 Mind - the mental health charity

Rethink logo

Rethink - challenging the stigma surrounding

mental health

The Encephalitis Society Logo red and blue jigsaw brain

 The Encephalitis Society

anti-nmda-foundation Logo

 Anti-NMDA Foundation

Auto-immune Encephalitis Alliance Logo

 Auto-immune Encephalitis Alliance

Ink Quill vector

lived experience literature

 Narrated poem, written by a person who was

diagnosed with psychosis, and later tested

positive for anti-neuronal membrane antibodies.

Brain on Fire: My Month of Madness book cover

Brain on Fire by Susannah Cahalan.

An autobiographical account of one woman's

experience of NMDA-r encephalitis.






Letter P on a light green background

What is psychosis?

Psychosis is a mental health illness that causes people to perceive or interpret things differently from those around them. This might involve hallucinations or delusions, but often presents with a number of different and varied symptoms.

More information can be found on the NHS Choices website.

Support and information can also be found through the websites of the mental health charities Mind and Rethink.

Contact your GP if you think you, or someone you know, are having psychotic experiences.

Letter e on a light red background

What is encephalitis?

Encephalitis is a condition that causes inflammation in the brain.

Encephalitis usually begins with flu-like symptoms, and can go on to present with changes in mental state, seizures or changes in personality and behaviour.

There are a number of causes of encephalitis. One of them is when antibodies start attacking healthy parts of the brain, causing an inflammation: this condition is called autoimmune encephalitis.

Letter a on a light blue background

What is an autoimmune disease?

The body’s immune system fights off foreign and disease-causing (pathogenic) substances.

An autoimmune disease occurs when a person's immune system begins to respond to normal bodily substances and tissues as if it were foreign or pathogenic. So the immune system starts to ‘fight off’ normal bodily tissue, which can cause further problems.

There are many known autoimmune disorders that can affect different bodily fluids and tissue. They can usually be treated with immunotherapy - where the immune system is supressed to stop the autoimmune response.

Abbreviation NMDA-R-VGKC on an orange background

 What are NMDAR, LGI1 and GABA-A  antibodies?

NMDA-r stands for 'N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor'. This is a receptor in the brain that responds to the neurotransmitter glutamate.

GABA-AR stands for 'Type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor'. This receptor responds to the neurotransmitter ‘GABA’, which controls the levels of excitability in the brain.

LGI1 stands for 'leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1', and is a protein involved in regulating neuronal excitability.

Recent studies have shown that there are autoimmune diseases that produce antibodies to specifically target parts of NMDA and GABA-A receptors and LGI1 proteins and disrupt their function.

Our PPiP2 study is investigating how commonly these antibodies are present in patients experiencing psychosis.

Our SINAPPS2 clinical trial is investigating whether people with these antibodies who are experiencing psychosis get better after being treated with immunotherapy.

Abbreviation AMP Icon on a red background

What is antibody-associated psychosis?

The latest research suggests that 6-9% of people with psychosis have antibodies in their blood which could be the cause of their illness.

Our immune system normally protects us against infections. It does this by making antibodies,  proteins which the body produces to fight infections. However, for a very small number of people, some antibodies (called anti-neuronal membrane antibodies) start to attack healthy brain tissue causing swelling. This can result in symptoms of psychosis, including hallucinations and paranoid feelings. There is some evidence that getting rid of these antibodies may improve the symptoms of psychosis.

Antibody associated psychosis is very similar to a condition called encephalitis. The conditions are so similar that some believe that antibody associated psychosis might be a specific type of encephalitis (the term ‘anti-NMDA encephalitis is sometimes used in place of ‘antibody associated psychosis).

(extracted from Antibody Mediated Psychosis information and resources from the public, The McPin Foundation)