Molecular-Signaling Pathways of Ginsenosides Rb in Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: A Mini Review
Ramli FF., Ali A., Ibrahim NI.
Reperfusion injury following myocardial ischemia remained a challenge for optimal treatment of myocardial infarction. Ginsenosides Rb (G-Rb), the primary components of ginsenoside, have been reported to exert cardioprotective effects via numerous mechanisms. G-Rb1 mediate cardioprotective effects via various signaling pathways, including mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HIF-1α and GRF91, RhoA, p38α MAPK, and eNOS. G-Rb2 activates the SIRT-1 pathway, while G-Rb3 promotes both JNK-mediated NF-κB and PERK/Nrf2/HMOX1. Generally, ginsenosides Rb1, 2, and 3 modulates oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, contributing to the improvement of structural, functional and biochemical parameters. In conclusion, G-Rb, particularly G-Rb1, have vast potential as a supplement in attenuating reperfusion injury. Translation into a clinical trial is warranted to confirm the beneficial effects of G-Rb.