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Methadone has a wide pharmacokinetic interindividual variability, resulting in unpredicted treatment response. Pharmacogenomic biomarkers seem promising for personalized methadone maintenance treatment. The evidence supports the use of ABCB1 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)1236C>T with genotypes C/T or C/C (Jewish) and haplotypes AGCTT carrier, AGCGC heterozygote, or non-carrier (Caucasian), which have a predicted lower methadone dose requirement. In contrast, ABCB1 SNP1236C>T with genotype T/T (Jewish); haplotypes AGCGC homozygote, AGCTT non-carrier (Caucasian), and ABCB13435C>T variant carrier; and haplotypes CGT, TTC, and TGT (Han Chinese) have a predicted higher methadone dose. For methadone plasma levels, ABCB1 diplotype non-CGC/TTT (Malay) predicted lower, and diplotype CGC/TTT (Malay), 3435C>T allelic carrier, haplotypes (CGT, TTC, TGT) (Han Chinese) predicted higher methadone levels. In terms of metabolism biomarkers, a lower methadone requirement was related to carriers of CYP2B6 genotypes *4(G/G) and *9(T/T) among Jewish patients, CYP2B6*9 genotype (T/T) and haplotypes (TA/TG); and CYP2C19 (*2/*2,*2/*3, and *3/*3; Han Chinese). Higher meth­adone dose was observed in CYP2C19*1 allelic carriers (Han Chinese) and CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer (Caucasian). Lower methadone levels were reported in CYP2B6 SNPs, haplotypes TTT, and AGATAA (Han Chinese), CYP2C19 genotype *1/*1 (Han Chinese), allelic carrier *1xN (Caucasian), and CYP3A4 genotype *1/*1 (Caucasian). Carriers of CYP2B6 genotype *6/*6 (Caucasian), CYP2B6 haplotypes ATGCAG and ATGCTG (Han Chinese), and CYP3A4 genotype *1/*1B (Caucasian) had predicted higher methadone plasma levels. Specific pharmacokinetics biomarkers have potential uses for personalized methadone treatment in specific populations.

Original publication




Journal article


Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

Publication Date





145 - 154