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OBJECTIVE: The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) has revised the classification of epilepsies and seizures on several occasions since the original classification published in 1964. It is unclear if these changes have impacted the characterization of epilepsy, including the clinical validity of seizure semiology or epilepsy outcomes in resource-poor areas. We aim to address this important knowledge gap. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical seizure semiology and etiological data of 483 persons with epilepsy identified from a population-based survey in rural Kenya. The seizure semiology and etiological data were classified using the 1981 (for seizures) and 1989 (for epilepsy) ILAE criteria and then reclassified according to the ILAE-2017 criteria. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to measure the associations between the seizure semiology and different clinical and electroencephalographic features of epilepsy. RESULTS: Focal (formerly localization-related) and generalized epilepsies were lower in ILAE-2017 (56% and 29%) than that of ILAE-1989 (61% and 34%), P 

Original publication




Journal article


Epilepsia Open

Publication Date



ILAE-1981, ILAE-1989, ILAE-2017, classification, epilepsy, outcomes, seizure