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While genome and transcriptome sequencing has revealed a large number and diversity of Anopheles gambiae predicted proteins, identifying their functions and biosynthetic pathways remains challenging. Applied mass spectrometry-based proteomics in conjunction with mosquito genome and transcriptome databases were used to identify 44 proteins as putative components of the eggshell. Among the identified molecules are two vitelline membrane proteins and a group of seven putative chorion proteins. Enzymes with peroxidase, laccase and phenoloxidase activities, likely involved in cross-linking reactions that stabilize the eggshell structure, also were identified. Seven odorant binding proteins were found in association with the mosquito eggshell, although their role has yet to be demonstrated. This analysis fills a considerable gap of knowledge about proteins that build the eggshell of anopheline mosquitoes.

Original publication




Journal article


J Insect Physiol

Publication Date





1414 - 1419


Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Anopheles, Insect Proteins, Molecular Sequence Data, Ovum, Proteomics, Sequence Alignment, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization