Cardiometabolic disease and features of depression and bipolar disorder: population-based, cross-sectional study.
Martin DJ., Ul-Haq Z., Nicholl BI., Cullen B., Evans J., Gill JMR., Roberts B., Gallacher J., Mackay D., McIntosh A., Hotopf M., Craddock N., Deary IJ., Pell JP., Smith DJ.
BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of demographic, lifestyle and medication factors to the association between affective disorders and cardiometabolic diseases is poorly understood. AIMS: To assess the relationship between cardiometabolic disease and features of depresion and bipolar disorder within a large population sample. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of 145 991 UK Biobank participants: multivariate analyses of associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and five cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: There were significant associations between mood disorder features and 'any cardiovascular disease' (depression odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.19; bipolar OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.43) and with hypertension (depression OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.13-1.18; bipolar OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.42). Individuals with features of mood disorder taking psychotropic medication were significantly more likely than controls not on psychotropics to report myocardial infarction (depression OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.24-1.73; bipolar OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.53-3.57) and stroke (depression OR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.10-2.80; bipolar OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.39-3.85). CONCLUSIONS: Associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and cardiovascular disease outcomes were statistically independent of demographic, lifestyle and medication confounders. Psychotropic medication may also be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in individuals without a clear history of mood disorder.