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OBJECTIVE: We conducted meta-analyses to assess risk for anxiety disorders among offspring of parents with anxiety disorders, and to establish whether there is evidence of specificity of risk for anxiety disorders as opposed to depression in offspring, and whether particular parent anxiety disorders confer risks for particular child anxiety disorders. We also examined whether risk was moderated by offspring age, gender, temperament, and the presence of depressive disorders in parents. METHOD: We searched PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science in June, 2016, and July, 2017 (PROSPERO CRD42016048814). Study inclusion criteria were as follows: published in peer-reviewed journals; contained at least one group of parents with anxiety disorders and at least one comparison group of parents who did not have anxiety disorders; reported rates of anxiety disorders in offspring; and used validated diagnostic tools to ascertain diagnoses. We used random and mixed-effects models and evaluated study quality. RESULTS: We included 25 studies (7,285 offspring). Where parents had an anxiety disorder, offspring were significantly more likely to have anxiety (risk ratio [RR] = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.58-1.96) and depressive disorders (RR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.13-1.52) than offspring of parents without anxiety disorders. Parent panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder appeared to confer particular risk. Risk was greater for offspring anxiety than for depressive disorders (RR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.50-4.16), and specifically for offspring generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder and specific phobia, but there was no evidence that children of parents with particular anxiety disorders were at increased risk for the same particular anxiety disorders. Moderation analyses were possible only for offspring age, sex, and parental depressive disorder; none were significant. CONCLUSION: Parent anxiety disorders pose specific risks of anxiety disorders to offspring. However, there is limited support for transmission of the same particular anxiety disorder. These results support the potential for targeted prevention of anxiety disorders.

Original publication




Journal article


J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry

Publication Date





46 - 60


anxiety disorders, depression, risk factors