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© 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Behavioral genetic studies have indicated a substantial environmental contribution to the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Research that has aimed to elucidate the key environmental influences has predominantly focused on parenting-related factors; however, there has also been some consideration of broader factors including life events, peer relationships, siblings, and the school environment. We conclude that there is evidence that particular parenting practices are implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children; however, these are likely to vary in their effects in different contexts influenced by, for example, child temperament and developmental stage. Future studies need to examine how different factors interact and may potentially compound risks, in order to improve our understanding and enable further developments of clinical prevention and intervention for child anxiety disorders.

Original publication





Book title

Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

Publication Date



101 - 124