Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The gut-microbiome has been hypothesised as a novel potential target for intervention for schizophrenia. We tested this hypothesis with a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the efficacy and acceptability of add-on strategies known to affect the gut-microbiome for the treatment of schizophrenia. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched from inception to August 2019 all the randomised double-blind controlled trials of add-on antibiotics, antimicrobials, pre/probiotics, and faecal transplant in schizophrenia. Primary outcomes were severity of negative symptoms and acceptability of treatment. Data were independently extracted by multiple observers and a random-mixed model was used for the analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 index. We identified 28 eligible trials: 21 investigated antibiotics, 4 antimicrobials (Artemisinin, Artemether, and Sodium Benzoate), 3 pre/probiotics, none faecal transplant. Results showed no effect of D-Cycloserine (10 studies; SMD, -0.16; 95% CI -0.40, 0.08; P = .20; I2: 28.2%), Minocycline (7 studies; SMD: -0.35; 95% CI -0.70, 0.00; P = .05, I2:77.7%), other antibiotics (2 studies), probiotics alone (1 study), and Artemisinin (1 study) on negative symptoms of schizophrenia when compared to placebo. Limited evidence suggests efficacy on negative symptoms for Sodium benzoate (2 studies; SMD, -0.63; 95%CI -1.03, -0.23; P < .001; I2:0%), Artemether (1 study), and probiotics combined with Vitamin D (1 study) when compared to placebo. Acceptability of intervention was similar to placebo. Negative findings were mainly led by antibiotics trials, with paucity of evidence available on pre/probiotics. There is a need of expanding our knowledge on the clinical relevance of gut-microbiome-host interaction in psychosis before engaging in further trials.

Original publication




Journal article


Schizophr Res

Publication Date



Antibiotics, Gut-microbiome, Minocycline, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Schizophrenia