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Women are at significantly greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and show higher prevalence of autoimmune conditions relative to men. Women's brain health is historically understudied, and little is therefore known about the mechanisms underlying epidemiological sex differences in neurodegenerative diseases, and how female-specific factors may influence women's brain health across the lifespan. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the immunology of pregnancy and menopause, emphasizing that these major immunological and hormonal transition phases may play a critical part in women's brain aging trajectories.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Neuroendocrinol

Publication Date



Estrogen, Immunology, Menopause, Pregnancy, Women’s brain aging