Resilience in the face of peer victimisation and discrimination: The who, when and why in five patterns of adjustment
Freitas DF., Coimbra S., Marturano EM., Marques SC., Oliveira JE., Fontaine AM.
Victimisation has a negative effect on psychosocial functioning. Based on the resilience theory, and with a sample of 2975 Portuguese students, the present study aims to: i) identify patterns of adjustment in the face of peer victimisation and perceptions of discrimination; ii) explore the association between the patterns of adjustment and the characteristics of participants (the who) and of the victimisation (the when and why). Cluster analysis revealed five patterns of adjustment: Unchallenged; Externally Maladjusted; Internally Maladjusted; Resilient, and At-Risk. The results suggest that there is no complete resilience in the face of social victimisation. Group differences were found regarding: i) gender, type of course, sexual orientation, ethnicity, nationality, parental educational level and religious beliefs; ii) the age at which peer victimisation was more frequent, and; iii) the motives underlying discrimination. Globally considered, peer victimisation is representative of the wider cultural environment and interventions should also target social prejudices.