Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Victimisation has a negative effect on psychosocial functioning. Based on the resilience theory, and with a sample of 2975 Portuguese students, the present study aims to: i) identify patterns of adjustment in the face of peer victimisation and perceptions of discrimination; ii) explore the association between the patterns of adjustment and the characteristics of participants (the who) and of the victimisation (the when and why). Cluster analysis revealed five patterns of adjustment: Unchallenged; Externally Maladjusted; Internally Maladjusted; Resilient, and At-Risk. The results suggest that there is no complete resilience in the face of social victimisation. Group differences were found regarding: i) gender, type of course, sexual orientation, ethnicity, nationality, parental educational level and religious beliefs; ii) the age at which peer victimisation was more frequent, and; iii) the motives underlying discrimination. Globally considered, peer victimisation is representative of the wider cultural environment and interventions should also target social prejudices.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Adolescence

Publication Date





19 - 34