MRS of Psychiatric Disorders
MRS plays an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of psychiatric illnesses. Well-replicated findings demonstrate neurochemical abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissue during episodes of psychiatric illness. The examples of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders, such as depression and bipolar disorder, reveal striking effects on the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, and on the major cortical neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA. Studies in high-risk and prodromal populations demonstrate findings that predate the onset of illness. Emerging evidence shows that some, but not all, of these neurochemical abnormalities persist after clinical recovery as possible vulnerability markers. Future studies may find a clinical role for some of these effects as a complement to traditional assessment to allow for more appropriate and directed treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.