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AbstractRobust automated segmentation of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in different datasets (domains) is highly challenging due to differences in acquisition (scanner, sequence), population (WMH amount and location) and limited availability of manual segmentations to train supervised algorithms. In this work we explore various domain adaptation techniques such as transfer learning and domain adversarial learning methods, including domain adversarial neural networks and domain unlearning, to improve the generalisability of our recently proposed triplanar ensemble network, which is our baseline model. We evaluated the domain adaptation techniques on source and target domains consisting of 5 different datasets with variations in intensity profile, lesion characteristics and acquired using different scanners. For transfer learning, we also studied various training options such as minimal number of unfrozen layers and subjects required for finetuning in the target domain. On comparing the performance of different techniques on the target dataset, unsupervised domain adversarial training of neural network gave the best performance, making the technique promising for robust WMH segmentation.

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