A systematic review and meta-analysis of gestational diabetes mellitus and mental health among BAME populations.
Delanerolle G., Phiri P., Zeng Y., Marston K., Tempest N., Busuulwa P., Shetty A., Goodison W., Muniraman H., Duffy G., Elliot K., Maclean A., Majumder K., Hirsch M., Rathod S., Raymont V., Shi JQ., Hapangama DK.
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy and is associated with an increased risk of mental health (MH) disorders including antenatal and postnatal depression (PND), anxiety and post-traumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized GDM and MH disorders will disproportionately affect individuals from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic backgrounds. Methods: A systematic methodology was developed, and a protocol was published in PROSPERO (CRD42020210863) and a systematic review of publications between 1st January 1990 and 30th January 2021 was conducted. Multiple electronic databases were explored using keywords and MeSH terms. The finalised dataset was analysed using statistical methods such as random-effect models, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. These were used to determine odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to establish prevalence using variables of PND, anxiety, PTSD and stress to name a few. Findings: Sixty studies were finalised from the 20,040 data pool. Forty-six studies were included systematically with 14 used to meta-analyze GDM and MH outcomes. A second meta-analysis was conducted using 7 studies to determine GDM risk among Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic women with pre-existing MH disorders. The results indicate an increased risk with pooled adjusted OR for both reflected at 1.23, 95% CI of 1.00-1.50 and 1.29, 95% CI of 1.11-1.50 respectively. Interpretation: The available studies suggest a MH sequalae with GDM as well as a sequalae of GDM with MH among Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic populations. Our findings warrant further future exploration to better manage these patients. Funding: Not applicable.