The Association between Serum Lipids and Intraocular Pressure in 2 Large United Kingdom Cohorts
Madjedi KM., Stuart KV., Chua SYL., Luben RN., Warwick A., Pasquale LR., Kang JH., Wiggs JL., Lentjes MAH., Aschard H., Sattar N., Foster PJ., Khawaja AP., Chia M., Do R., Kastner A., Kim J., Montesano G., Atan D., Aslam T., Barman SA., Barrett JH., Bishop P., Blows P., Bunce C., Carare RO., Chakravarthy U., Chan M., Crabb DP., Cumberland PM., Day A., Desai P., Dhillon B., Dick AD., Egan C., Ennis S., Foster P., Fruttiger M., Gallacher JEJ., Garway-Heath DF., Gibson J., Gore D., Guggenheim JA., Hammond CJ., Hardcastle A., Harding SP., Hogg RE., Hysi P., Keane PA., Khaw SPT., Lascaratos G., Lotery AJ., Macgillivray T., Mackie S., Martin K., McGaughey M., McGuinness B., McKay GJ., McKibbin M., Mitry D., Moore T., Morgan JE., Muthy ZA., O'Sullivan E., Owen CG., Patel P., Paterson E., Peto T., Petzold A., Rahi JS., Rudnikca AR., Self J., Sivaprasad S., Steel D., Stratton I., Strouthidis N., Sudlow C., Thomas D., Trucco E., Tufail A., Vitart V., Vernon SA., Viswanathan AC., Williams C., Williams K., Woodside JV., Yates MM., Yip J., Zheng Y.
Purpose: Serum lipids are modifiable, routinely collected blood test features associated with cardiovascular health. We examined the association of commonly collected serum lipid measures (total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides) with intraocular pressure (IOP). Design: Cross-sectional study in the UK Biobank and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohorts. Participants: We included 94 323 participants from the UK Biobank (mean age, 57 years) and 6230 participants from the EPIC-Norfolk (mean age, 68 years) cohorts with data on TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides collected between 2006 and 2009. Methods: Multivariate linear regression adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, medical, and ophthalmic covariables was used to examine the associations of serum lipids with corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc). Main Outcome Measures: Corneal-compensated IOP. Results: Higher levels of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C were associated independently with higher IOPcc in both cohorts after adjustment for key demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. For each 1-standard deviation increase in TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C, IOPcc was higher by 0.09 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06–0.11 mmHg; P < 0.001), 0.11 mmHg (95% CI, 0.08–0.13 mmHg; P < 0.001), and 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.05–0.09 mmHg; P < 0.001), respectively, in the UK Biobank cohort. In the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, each 1-standard deviation increase in TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C was associated with a higher IOPcc by 0.19 mmHg (95% CI, 0.07–0.31 mmHg; P = 0.001), 0.14 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03–0.25 mmHg; P = 0.016), and 0.17 mmHg (95% CI, 0.06–0.29 mmHg; P = 0.003). An inverse association between triglyceride levels and IOP in the UK Biobank (–0.05 mmHg; 95% CI, –0.08 to –0.03; P < 0.001) was not replicated in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort (P = 0.30). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C are associated positively with IOP in 2 United Kingdom cohorts and that triglyceride levels may be associated negatively. Future research is required to assess whether these associations are causal in nature.