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STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insomnia, depression, and anxiety show high rates of comorbidity and functional impairment. Transdiagnostic symptom interactions may be implicated in this comorbidity. This network analysis sought to assess how symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety may interact and individually predict impairment across several domains for individuals with insomnia. METHODS: Baseline psychometric data from a randomised controlled trial were analysed (N = 1711). A regularized partial correlation network was estimated from the symptom data. Centrality (symptom connectivity), community structure (symptom clustering), and bridging (inter-community connectivity) were assessed. The replicability of the network model was assessed via confirmatory analyses in a holdout sample. Separately, Shapley values were estimated to determine the relative importance of each symptom in predicting functioning (i.e., psychological wellbeing, psychosocial functioning, and physical health impairment). RESULTS: The most connected nodes were uncontrollable worrying; trouble relaxing; and depressed mood/hopelessness. Five communities were identified with trouble relaxing identified as the bridge symptom between communities. The model showed good fit in the holdout sample. Low energy and depressive affect symptoms (feelings of failure/guilt; depressed mood/hopelessness; anhedonia) were key predictors in the relative importance analysis across multiple domains of impairment. CONCLUSION: Trouble relaxing may be of clinical and transdiagnostic significance in the context of insomnia. In terms of how symptoms relate to functioning, it was clear that, while low energy and feelings of failure/guilt were prominent predictors, a range of symptoms are associated with functional impairment. Consideration of both symptoms and functional impairment across domains may be useful in determining targets for treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This is a secondary analysis of an original clinical trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN60530898. Registry URL:

Original publication




Journal article


Sleep Med

Publication Date





505 - 514


Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia, Network analysis, Psychological wellbeing, Psychosocial functioning, Symptomics, Transdiagnostic